As part of my teaching position, I am evaluated by my school dean once every 3 years. Even though I have “tenure”, we are continually observed in the classroom. I welcome this opportunity as a way for me to get input from an outside observer. I am very fortunate that my dean has several decades of teaching experience in both higher ed AND K-12. He is a master teacher in mathematics and has been discussing the flipped classroom with me for several years.
His observations were aligned with my observations. The in class activities (solving a list of problems) became more like a study hall. Every student was working on their own even if they were grouped. There was little conversation and this only occurred if someone didn’t get the “right” answer that was listed in the text. I had to run around answering and guiding individual students sometimes repeating my response over and over. The more prepared students finished quickly and either sat there or worked ahead. The students who struggled could barely finish the assigned problems or stay on task. The more prepared students didn’t want to spend time explaining to the struggling student nor did the struggling student want to ask them for help.
So my dean gave me an idea that he had observed another instructor do. Each student got a number (1-4). All number 1′s moved to meet together and work on two problems. Each #1 student was responsible for knowing how to solve their two problems. The numbered students returned to their original group tasked with teaching their group mates how to solve their two problems. All students left having the information to solve all 8 problems.
I tried this today. Students were at first resistant; giving me that look of “please don’t make me move”. Once they were in their groups, they resorted back to doing the problems independently. I had to stop at each group, question, and “ask” a member to explain their answer to their group members. Then I heard it…. talking, teaching, and learning. They asked each other to explain and heard my most quiet students explaining to others. Everyone was on task; no phones; no straying conversations. When the numbered groups finished their problems, I asked them to move back to their original groups.
In their original groups, each numbered student had to teach their group mates. This also went very well as each was confident in their answers and were able to explain. Everyone left having completed the same problems and feeling confident in their answers.
I am going to try this again. It seems MUCH better than the “study hall” environment. I also don’t have to run around and answer the same question 20 times. I can address one problem with four students. I also think having a whiteboard with each group will help the students explain to their peers more easily than on paper.
The next issue is how to group students in their original group. It was suggested that group them according to ability…. all weak together, middle together, and high together. This seems counterintuitive to me. I did attempt to place a low, middle, and high together last fall. This didn’t work very well as the high performing student didn’t want to take the time to help a low achieving student and the low achieving student didn’t want to admit they didn’t know something or were not prepared. How do you group students?
The next issue is the number of assigned “in class” problems. Is less more? I observed that most students do the problems to get the done rather than understanding them… rushing through them to “check off” that assignment. Should I assign less problems so that students spend more quality time on them? Maybe give “extra” problems for those who are motivated to do more?
I am determined to find the right balance and practices for implementing the flipped classroom. I will not give up on this… Just the other day a student asked me if (M1/M2) * V2 would give the same answers as M1V2/M2. I would never have had this conversation with the student had it not been for the opportunities to talk with every student, everyday in the flipped classroom.